Static stretching

Static stretching has been used for centuries by those involved in Yoga.  In this type of stretching, you stretch to the point at where you feel mild tension and relax as you hold the stretch (without bouncing) for at least 20-30 seconds  Deep slow breathing is also incorporated with the intention to relax the muscles and the mind.

Passive stretching

The individual makes no contribution or active muscle contraction.  The therapist or trainer provides the external force and assists the muscle into its fullest range of motion.  The stretch is sustained for at least 30 - 60 seconds.

Active isolated stretching 

This technique was developed by Aaron Mattes. It involves the method of holding each stretch for only two seconds. This method of stretching is also known to work with the body's natural physiological makeup to improve circulation and increase the elasticity of muscle joints and fascia. 

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation or PNF

This technique involves both the stretching and contraction of the muscle group being targeted. PNF stretching was originally developed as a form of rehabilitation, and to that effect it is very effective.

Dynamic stretching 

Uses controlled movements to improve range of motion, loosens up muscles and increases heart rate, body temperature, and blood flow. Dynamic stretching is most effective when it's sport-specific and has been proven to aid sports performance and reduce the soreness after sport activity (if performed as a warm up).

Fascia stretch

Fascia is connective tissue which surrounds muscles, bones and joints, providing support and protection and giving structure to the body.  Fascial stretching isn't about stretching one isolated muscle, its more global, it can be the missing link in rehabilitation as it uses multiple planes of movement to target the entire joint. 
"If you're not stretching your fascia, you're not really stretching" Brian Dawkins. Super Bowl Philadelphia Eagles.

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